• Building process of an EOS M 290, DMLS, 3D printing, metal, laser, additive manufacturing | © EOS
    Press Release

    Linde and EOS credit ADDvance O2 precision technology
    with success of additive manufacturing study

  • EOS and Linde combined respective expertise to jointly undertake research of gas interaction on aluminium alloy
  • ADDvance O2 precision provided continuous and exacting analysis of the gas atmosphere for unequivocal results


Guildford, UK, September 14 2021 – Linde (NYSE: LIN; FWB: LIN) Linde, the world’s foremost industrial gases company, and EOS, a leading supplier of responsible manufacturing solutions via industrial 3D printing technology, combined forces to conduct an important study into the influence of oxygen in the print process chamber and its effect on the critical properties of aluminium alloy AlSi10Mg.

Results of the study, conducted in 2020, will be fundamental to advancing optimal, repeatable and reliable printing of an alloy widely used across multiple industries. Linde’s additive manufacturing oxygen monitoring technology – ADDvance® O2 precision – has been credited as being instrumental to achieving the unequivocal and highly accurate results not only by Linde’s additive manufacturing engineering team, but that of the EOS team.

EOS is one of the world’s leading technology suppliers in the field of industrial 3D printing of metals and polymers, so to be selected to jointly work with them to progress the future of aluminium alloy printing is testament to our atmospheric gas and materials expertise.  We are delighted that our ADDvance O2 precision monitoring technology has made such a big contribution to accurately measuring those all-important oxygen levels.
Pierre Forêt, Senior Expert Additive Manufacturing, Linde

EOS’ proprietary DMLS® building process usually takes place under an argon or nitrogen atmosphere, established by purging high purity gas into the build chamber which then replaces the relative ratio of ambient air until reaching an oxygen concentration below 1000 ppm.

Even after the most rigorous purging of the print chamber atmosphere, it is possible for minor impurities to still remain present. Extremely small variations in oxygen levels can impact the mechanical properties of alloys sensitive to oxygen - including process induced aging of the metal powder. As part of the Linde-EOS investigation into gas interaction with EOS Aluminium AlSi10Mg powder, ADDvance O2 precision was selected to provide continuous analysis of the gas atmosphere. Recognizing O2 concentrations as low as 10 ppm, ADDvance O2 precision initiates an automatic purging process to maintain optimal atmospheric conditions.

The Study

21 build jobs were performed on the EOS M 290 system, with varying residual oxygen concentrations within the process gas atmosphere – ranging from 1000 ppm to 5000 ppm. Three oxygen sensors were placed at different locations within the chamber: one placed on top of the process chamber, one in the recirculation filter system, and the other in the ADDvance O2 precision system which was closest to the powder bed and which was calibrated to an oxygen level of 500 ppm to guarantee precise measurement.

The ADDvance O2 precision was initially set on analyzing mode which only tracked the oxygen level and later set on control mode by taking over the regulation of the oxygen level within the process gas.

To establish a benchmark, the first three building jobs were undertaken using EOS’s standard conditions (oxygen levels under 1000 ppm). With the help of the very precise sensor in the ADDvance O2 precision, more exacting measurements could be carried out, with deviations between that sensor and the EOS M 290’s sensors then mapped.

In addition to boosting the accuracy of oxygen level readings, when the ADDvance O2 precision was set to control mode to regulate the atmosphere, it delivered much greater consistency in the oxygen levels.

“For EOS, a consistent and reliable gas atmosphere, as well as accuracy of oxygen gas readings, is vital for us because it is vital for our customers”, said Dr. Astrid Rota, Head of Metal Process Technology, EOS. “Some industries require not only the most advanced printing systems generating best material quality, but also need to record highly detailed data which is where the ADDvance O2 precision really delivers.”

On completion of the study the following findings were confirmed:

  • The EOS M 290 with the EOS Aluminium AlSi10Mg powder and process parameters enable a high-quality, reproducible final part 
  • An oxygen content below 1000 ppm needs to be maintained during processing to prevent increasing the number and size of pores and ensure high part density and required mechanical properties
  • Powder aging is reduced by keeping the O2 level below 1000 ppm which enables more frequent reuse of the powder
  • The position of the oxygen sensor influences the measurement, with a sensor placed near to the powder bed giving optimal measurement

About EOS

EOS provides responsible manufacturing solutions via industrial 3D printing technology to manufacturers around the world. Connecting high quality production efficiency with its pioneering innovation and sustainable practices, the independent company formed in 1989 will shape the future of manufacturing. Powered by its platform-driven digital value network of machines and a holistic portfolio of services, materials and processes, EOS is deeply committed to fulfilling its customers’ needs and acting responsibly for our planet.

About Linde

Linde is a leading global industrial gases and engineering company with 2020 sales of $27 billion (€24 billion). We live our mission of making our world more productive every day by providing high-quality solutions, technologies and services which are making our customers more successful and helping to sustain and protect our planet.

The company serves a variety of end markets including chemicals & refining, food & beverage, electronics, healthcare, manufacturing and primary metals. Linde's industrial gases are used in countless applications, from life-saving oxygen for hospitals to high-purity & specialty gases for electronics manufacturing, hydrogen for clean fuels and much more. Linde also delivers state-of-the-art gas processing solutions to support customer expansion, efficiency improvements and emissions reductions.

For more information about the company and its products and services, please visit www.linde.com


Partner Press Release Linde & EOS: Joined study on AM and material-gas interaction
Source: Linde
Experimental setup of gas management.
Source: LInde
Industrial 3D printing with metal
Source: EOS


Claudia Rupp
Director Global Marketing